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Sports training refers to specific methods of exercise used in sports to develop athletes. Some of the more common training methods are: Altitude Training, Cross-Training, Strength Training, and Weight Training.
Altitude training is the practice by some endurance athletes of training for several weeks at high altitude, preferably over 8,000 ft above sea level. At this altitude the air still contains approximately 20% oxygen, but the partial pressure of oxygen is reduced. More common nowadays is the use of an altitude simulation room. Such a device has enabled different altitude training techniques including.
Cross-training in sports and fitness refers to the combining of exercises to work various parts of the body. Often one particular activity works certain muscle groups, but not others, cross-training aims to eliminate this. Running, for example, is excellent for endurance, and prolonged use of the large muscle groups in the legs. A runner may lift weights in order to build muscle and increase upper body strength, things that running cannot provide.
Strength training is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, anaerobic endurance and size of skeletal muscles. There are many different methods of strength training, the most common being the use of gravity or elastic/hydraulic forces to oppose muscle contraction. Strength training differs from bodybuilding, weightlifting, powerlifting, and strongman, which are sports rather than forms of exercise, although training for them is inherently interconnected with strength training. Many other sports use strength training as part of their training regimen, notably football, basketball, hockey and track and field.
Weight training is a common type of strength training for developing the strength and size of skeletal muscles. It uses the force of gravity to oppose the force generated by muscle through concentric or eccentric contraction. Weight training uses a variety of specialized equipment to target specific muscle groups and types of movement.
In addition to the basic principles of strength training, a further consideration added by weight training is the equipment used. Types of equipment include barbells, dumbbells, pulleys and stacks in the form of weight machines, and the body's own weight in the case of chin-ups and pushups. Different types of weights will give different types of resistance, and often the same absolute weight can have different relative weights depending on the type of equipment used. For example, lifting 10 kilograms using a dumbbell requires significantly more force than moving 10 kilograms on a weight stack due to the use of pulleys.